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The Curtiss R3C-2 Racer, 1925

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The Curtiss R3C-2 Racer was the world’s fastest airplane in 1925 when it captured the imagination and enthusiasm of the public for aviation. The museum’s curatorial, conservation, and collections preservation team has been able to take a closer look at it recently as part of the ongoing general renovation and reinterpretation of the Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight gallery set to reopen in May 2010.

R3C-2 Racer in Pioneers of Flight Gallery SI97-16073

The R3C was actually two air racers in one. It could operate with wheels and a tail skid from an airfield (R3C-1) or a pair of floats, or pontoons, from the water (R3C-2) and it won races as both.

Among its many innovative features were radiators for cooling the engine (see the ridges in the top and bottom wings) that were built into its wings and fuel tanks built into the floats.

Army Air Service Lt. James H. “Jimmy” Doolittle and the Curtiss R3C-2 seaplane racer won the prestigious 1925 Schneider Trophy competition at Baltimore, Maryland, on October 26, 1925, with an average speed of 232 miles per hour. The next day Doolittle flew the R3C-2 over a straight course at a world-record speed of 246 miles per hour. Yes, this is the same Doolittle that led the famous raid on Tokyo during the early days of World War II.

Doolittle taxi's R32-C during Schneider competition.

Doolittle taxiing the R3C-2 out to make his speed run during the Schneider competition. NASM-2A39961_4

The R3C competed in two other races. The week before Doolittle’s victory, on October 12, 1925, Army Air Service Lt. Cyrus Bettis raced the airplane in its R3C-1 to win the Pulitzer Trophy race. Bettis won at an average speed of 400.5 km/h (248.9 mph). He also established a world record of 401.3 km/h (249.342 mph) for landplanes over a 100 km course. To be specific, Bettis and the R3C-1 were the world’s fastest pilot and airplane in 1925.

Bettis with R3C-1

Bettis and the R3C-1

During the November 1926 Schneider Trophy competition at Hampton Roads, Virginia, Marine Corps Lt. C. Frank Schilt placed second at an average speed of 372 km/h (231.4 mph) in the R3C-2.  Later on, he received the Medal of Honor for his aerial evacuation of wounded Marines while under fire by Sandanista rebels at Quilali, Nicaragua, in January 1928.

Schilt and the R3C-2 at Hampton Roads

Schilt and the R3C-2 at Hampton Roads. NASM-9A06382

The Smithsonian acquired the R3C-2 in 1927 where it was on display in the Arts and Industries Building for many years with the markings it carried in the 1925 Schneider competition. The racer then went on loan for several years to the Air Force Museum, where it was restored by Air Force personnel. After returning to the Smithsonian, the R3C-2 went on display in the Pioneers of Flight gallery at the newly-opened National Air and Space Museum in 1976 where it remained for 32 years. With the opportunity to reinterpret the Pioneers of Flight gallery, museum staff moved the R3C-2 to the Garber Facility for cleaning and repairs in December 2008. The R3C-2 will return to the new Pioneers of Flight gallery for the grand opening in May 2010.

Curtiss R3C-2 load team

The R3C moving team at Museum’s West End, December 2008.

Curtiss R3C-2 underway

The Museum’s “Big Blue” taking the R3C-2 to Garber.

Next time, we’ll talk more about the refurbishment process for the R3C-2.

Jeremy Kinney is a curator in the Aeronautics Division of the National Air and Space Museum.

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9 thoughts on “The Curtiss R3C-2 Racer, 1925

  1. Doesn’t the R3C-2 make an appearance in the great Hayao Miyazaki film “Porco Rosso”? The villainous ace Curtis fights Porco with it, I think.

  2. These pictures are so cool. That aircraft and its pilot are truly an important part of our aviation history.
    It is not shown in these photos, but on top of the center of the top wing there is a bulb looking item. Is this an oil cooler? Can anyone answer what it is. It is behind what looks to be an air scoop on the engine cowl.

  3. Also, regarding Alan’s question. Yes, an “inspired” -2 does appear in “Porco Rosso” along with other types of racing aircraft.

  4. Mr. Kinney,

    Thank you very much for that info. A team and I built a 1/3rd scale RC model of the Curtiss in 1988. At the moment that bulb surface is smooth. Is that correct? Also, under the exhaust at the front on the cowl, there are protrusions on each side. What are these and where can I get a close up photo of them?
    I sure appreciate your assistance, this has been bothering me for twenty years. You can see the Curtiss we built at

    Thanks in advance,

    Bob Martin

  5. When you folks did the refurb on this aircraft did you by any chance do any phoot documenting as you went? If so, and if they are available, I would like to get some interior views if possible. Thank you in advance.

    Mike Robinson
    Rochester NY
    Member – Glenn Curtiss Museum

  6. Pingback: Papercraft Avión biplano Curtis R3C-2 - Construyamos Maquetas en Papel

  7. Hi there,

    The plane on display carries race number 3 – Doolittle’s number in the 1925 race. Is this in fact his plane, or Schilt’ plane from the 1926 race, which carried race number 6. Or, are they the same plane?

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